'You've been warned: Consumer liability in Internet banking fraud'

This contribution provides a critical analysis of the treatment of consumer liability in cases of Internet banking fraud. Whereas generally banks refund the financial losses associated with Internet banking fraud to the individual victim, exceptions do occur, at least in certain EU jurisdictions. These, however, are rarely spoken about, but do indicate a number of (legal) problems. The main problems are lack of clarity and lack of consistency as to when a consumer can be held liable. These problems also maintain potential negative consequences such as increase in perceived risk, loss of trust and demands for better security, which may be suboptimal from an economical perspective. This article concludes by reflecting on the potential benefits of the introduction of zero liability as an alternative.

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